January 10th, 2013By Category: Teaching in Japan

Recently, I wrote a short piece titled, “Is the JET Program right for you?” This was a short article, just intended as a very brief primer on the JET Program, based mostly on my own experiences and the experiences of other JETs I’ve personally known. Some of the comments on that piece questioned the validity of the JET Program and it got me thinking—is the JET Program really necessary for Japan?

As the official website states, JET “aims to promote grassroots internationalization at the local level by inviting young overseas graduates to assist in international exchange and foreign language education in local governments, boards of education and elementary, junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. It seeks to foster ties between Japanese citizens (mainly youth) and JET participants at the person-to-person level.”

Over the years, especially in recent times, the JET Program has fallen under criticism. One of the major critiques is that the English level of Japanese has not improved much since the JET Program began in 1987, and this is true. But this is a larger problem with English education in Japan as a whole. The JET Program is also quite expensive to maintain—over four thousand participants who make over three million yen a year and may also receive housing and transportation subsidies, as well as their airfare to and from Japan at the beginning and end of their stays. There are some problems with the JET Program and reforms that can be implemented.


For starters, the aim is quite broad. Promoting grassroots internationalization at the local level certainly sounds great, but what exactly does that mean? And how will this grassroots internationalization be implemented? While many JETs participate in community events, run English clubs or English conversation classes outside of their regular work duties, this isn’t true of all. There are some JETs who become very involved in their communities and become quite proficient in Japanese, but there are also others who rarely interact with the locals outside of work duties.

Another issue is the teaching of English itself. As I stated in my previous article, JETs who work as assistant language teachers (ALTs) can have a variety of different classroom experiences. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) are across the spectrum on ALTs—some love working with ALTs, some have little use for them, and some would like to use ALTs more in class, but don’t know how. English instruction has expanded to elementary schools as well, but without much thought given to properly preparing the teachers for it. Sometimes, the instruction falls to the homeroom teacher who frequently won’t know much more English than the students or it falls to the ALT. And while there are some ALTs who may have had teacher training in university or in previous careers, it’s by no means a pre-requisite for the program.

The root of these problems comes down to one of JET’s famed acronyms, ESID—Every Situation Is Different. The more one thinks about ESID, the more it seems like a crutch. If the schools don’t know what to do with the ALT and the ALT isn’t trained to perform properly, then naturally there will be problems. The JET Program has made some strides recently, such as by offering grants for ALTs who wish to get certified in an online TESOL course. But more could certainly be done. New ALTs arrive in late July and early August, and after two or three days of orientation in Tokyo, head to their host prefectures and cities. The students, however, are on summer vacation until the beginning of September. So for these ALTs, their first experiences in Japan usually consists of “office days,” where they go to their local board of education or their base school and sit at a desk from 8:30 in the morning until 4:15 in the afternoon and have nothing to do. There may be some local activities or English camps that they’re asked to participate in, but these can vary a lot based on location and based on contracting organization. There are some contracting organizations that won’t allow an ALT to participate in outside English camps or speech contests, even if they don’t administer any. Perhaps that two or three day orientation should be two or three weeks of TESOL instruction. Now, of course there are a whole host of issues involved with that, such as where would the instruction take place, how would it be paid for, would it be handled by CLAIR or by the contracting organizations, but it’s one suggestion. Perhaps this could be simplified by changing the requirements for JET and mandating that prospective ALTs have some training.

Another would be to have clear guidelines for the ALTs duties. Should it be mandated that they teach a community class or English club, how are they to be utilized in class, what is the role of the JTE and the ALT, etc. There needs to be more direction from the program as a whole and if Japan really wants to utilize native English speakers in the classroom, then both the JET Program and the method of English instruction should be reformed so that native English speakers can be utilized effectively.

I don’t mean this as an attack on the JET Program or its participants. The program is well-intentioned and its participants are more often than not very great people who want to live up to the aims of JET. But what I do know is that if Japan wants to improve the English ability of its citizens as well as help them develop good relationships with the rest of the world, it will take more than dropping recent graduates from English-speaking countries into the middle of the country.

Author of this article

Percival Constantine

Several years ago, Percival Constantine traded the frigid winters and skyscrapers
of Chicago for the typhoon seasons and volcanic eruptions of Kagoshima.
He is the Pulp Ark Award-nominated author of several books in the New Pulp
movement, including The Myth Hunter and Love & Bullets, as well as an editor
and English teacher. More information about his work can be found at his website, Also be sure to follow him on Facebook
( and Twitter (@perconstantine).

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  • David Hynes says:

    I currently work for a cram school in Taipei and will be working as an ALT for Interac come April.

    “ESID” is an interesting acronym. At Hess, it goes, “[the issue is] branch specific” or, as a general maxim for living in Taiwan, “everything changes”. It’s a nice way of saying, “Regional/local managers do not all agree on how to do things, so we let them do things their own way and as a result, our training can’t truly prepare you for the host of situations you may encounter.” Sometimes, yes, it is also a crutch for managers to be lazy. There’s a flipside that you can respond to customer’s needs and peculiar situations, of course. But a public school program is a different cup of tea, in my opinion. There should be some basic standards and framework put into place.

    I do agree that more training should be required in the case of JET- I’m really surprised it’s only 3 days. For Hess (a mere cram school), we trained for about a week and a half, full time, 8 hours a day. A lot of it was preparing to use internally made materials, not real TEFL stuff, but still, it was useful, and we picked up at least some basics on teaching methods and so forth. You want JET to fit within a budget, stop paying for people’s flights, or meet them 50/50 on them and spend the rest on a hotel stay for a solid week so some real training can happen. I personally also think that making people pay for at least some of their flight might make them more serious about it, since they’ll be investing financially and will have to plan in advance. Many companies offer interest free/super low interest (1%) startup loans that have to be paid back by attaching wages; Hess did it to my benefit in Taiwan, Interac is doing it… why shouldn’t JET do that with the airplane expense or something to that effect?

    Flexibility isn’t bad; but I do think there is a general failure for, as you said, specific rules about what exactly a native English speaker should be doing, how they are to be put to use, and so on. I suspect also that if American schools are locked up in bureaucracy and lack of innovation, Japanese schools are likely even worse and sending them a native speaking foreigner is like giving a combine to the Amish. It can be immensely beneficial, but if horse and buggy is your thing, you’ve got a valuable resource just sitting there and rusting.

  • You’re welcome, Leslie. Glad you found it informative.

  • leslie nguyen says:

    Thank you Percival for explaining in further detail especially with the part of ESID. Very useful!


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